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Форум » Til o'rganish markazi / Learning center » Learning English » Paragraph
AbdulazizДата: Сешанба, 11.11.2008, 1:19:22 | Сообщение # 1
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In this case we are going write paragraphs that we learned in ESL classes. You should write first able what your class and what kind of paragraph you are writing about.

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AbdulazizДата: Пайшанба, 12.02.2009, 7:18:14 | Сообщение # 2
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How do you write a Paragraph?

A paragraph is a collection of sentences that deal with one subject.
This is a paragraph - all of these sentences talk about what a paragraph is. An effective paragraph consists of a topic sentence, sentences that support this topic (the body of the paragraph), and a conclusion. The topic sentence in this paragraph is the first one, where the word is defined. Everything after that sentence is the body of this paragraph. The conclusion of this paragraph is the last sentence. When you change the topic, you start a new paragraph - I will change to a new paragraph next, to discuss different types of paragraphs and how to write an effective paragraph. A paragraph can contain as many sentences and words as you need - just be sure that you have said everything you need to say before you conclude the paragraph. Each paragraph should tell your reader about one subject, and should leave them with a good idea of whatever you are talking about.

O'zbekiston - inhsa Alloh kelajagi buyuk davlat!

AbdulazizДата: Пайшанба, 12.02.2009, 7:20:23 | Сообщение # 3
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There are seven or eight different types of paragraph. After each definition, you will find a short example paragraph.

* Narrative Paragraphs - these are the paragraphs that tell you what is going on in a story, and move things along.

The writer pauses to consider what the students need to know, then writes another sentence. These sentences all lead the reader toward the idea that a paragraph is just a way of communicating. After the writer finishes this paragraph, there will be another that needs to be written. The writer glances at the clock on the wall. Will there be enough time?

* Descriptive Paragraphs - these paragraphs give descriptions of something so that you can form a mental image of what is going on.

The WikiAnswers site is a colorful place. Bright oranges, blues, and greens entice the eye and make you want to look around and see what is there. Little cartoon aliens decorate the site and point to interesting things. Clicking on the buttons and arrows make new pages pop up, or make things change around.

* Explanatory Paragraphs - this is sometimes divided into "Explaining With Examples" and "Explaining a Process" - either way, these paragraphs provide an explanation for something, so that you can understand it better. This whole paragraph is an explanatory one!

In order to write a paragraph, first you think about what you want to say. Pretend that you are explaining things to your friends, or to a younger person. Try to explain in simple terms that are easy to follow. Once you have thought about it, start writing down what you would say out loud. That's all you need to do to write a paragraph.

* Compare and Contrast Paragraphs - these are the paragraphs that give similarities and differences between things.

Paragraphs are like conversations. Each conversation is a series of statements, questions, or explanations that pass along information. Each paragraph is also a series of sentences that pass along information. A paragraph is different from a conversation because a paragraph can be edited and changed after you write it down, and a conversation can't be taken back once you have spoken the words.

* Defining Paragraphs - these paragraphs give you a definition for some term.

A definition tells you what a word or term means. This paragraph tells you what a defining paragraph is, so this paragraph is a defining paragraph about defining paragraphs! When you define something, you want to use simple words so that your reader will understand what you are saying.

* Classifying Paragraphs - these are paragraphs which divide something into groups or categories. This entire section is a classifying paragraph which tells you the different kinds of paragraph that you can use!
* Persuasive or Argumentative Paragraphs - these are paragraphs that try to convince the reader to agree with something.

Writing a good paragraph just takes practice. You will be able to write well if you keep at it! Anyone at all can learn how to write a good paragraph, even if they don't make perfect grades or speak wonderful English. All you have to do is be willing to practice writing, and you can do it! A hortatory exposition is a special type of argument that is written in specific language. To write hortatory exposition, you use words that focus on the writer instead of on the reader (I, me, mine). You also use more abstract language such as passive voice ("it was done" instead of "they did it") and present tense instead of the usual past tense ("I am in town" instead of "I was in town"). Hortatory exposition is just an argument which is phrased in a less emotional, more passive voice.

The way that you write paragraphs is simply to pretend that you are talking to someone. Instead of telling them whatever you want to say, you write it down instead. Here are some good tips for writing efffective paragraphs:

* "Tell Them What You Are Going To Tell Them" - writing is the same as making a speech - first, you want to give the audience an idea of what is coming up. This will be your topic sentence, and should give a pretty good idea of what the paragraph is going to be about. A good topic sentence should be specific instead of general, and should convey some sort of emotion - either an attitude, a belief, or a conviction.
* "Tell Them" - next, you write your supporting sentences - be sure that each one supports the topic sentence - if you think of a sentence that goes off on a tangent or starts a new topic, put it into another paragraph.
* "Tell Them What You Just Told Them" - your conclusion sentence should repeat the basic idea of the topic sentence using different words.

O'zbekiston - inhsa Alloh kelajagi buyuk davlat!

AbdulazizДата: Пайшанба, 12.02.2009, 7:21:19 | Сообщение # 4
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You might also keep in mind these additional tips:

* Unity and Coherence - your paragraph should all be about the same topic, without wandering around discussing many different things. You should also be as coherent as possible - use simple language instead of big words whenever possible, link your sentences with bridges (see next tip), and use logical arguments and facts.
* Bridges - you can link the sentences and paragraphs by using key words which you repeat throughout your writing, by using synonyms and similar words, or by following a logical argument and proceeding step-by-step throughout. Using some sort of order, such as chronological (time) or structural order can help link paragraphs. The reader can guess what is coming next by knowing how time works, or by following along as you describe items in a series.
* Development - make sure your topic sentence is adequately discussed in the paragraph. While it is possible to have a one-sentence paragraph, you will usually need several sentences to discuss the topic. Use facts, statistics, and details. Cite what other people have said about the topic (remember to use quotes and give credit where due). Give a timeline if possible. Give examples in a story or anecdote. Define terms and explain similarities and differences. Describe causes and consequences.
* Transitions and Signposts - you can use words and phrases to alert your readers and let them know what's going on in your paragraph. Transition words and sentences help your ideas flow from one paragraph to another, and contain phrases like "in addition," "another point," or "afterwards." Signpost words and sentences "point the way" to let your readers know where your arguments and descriptions are headed - a signpost could be a bold word or phrase, a dot or arrow, or even an indentation. Signposts are another way to "tell them what you are going to tell them" and "tell them what you just told them."

Here are some more contributions:

* Use a "hook" or interesting fact to make people want to read your paragraphs.
* The Qualities of a well written paragraph are:

1. Unity - when a paragraph contains one single main idea.

2. Coherence - when a sentence follow one another in such a way that the writer's ideas are expressed in a clear logical manner without sudden shifts or gaps of thought. You can add coherency by:

* arranging the details in logical order to avoid thought gaps.
* using transitional devices or signals to link the thought sequence from one idea to the next.

3. Emphasis - the principle of composition by means of which important ideas are made to stand.

4. Order - the quality that gives the paragraph a specific direction. It guides the reader's mind towards the point the writer wishes to make or directs the reader towards the understanding of that point.

*Supervisors* This is a teaching hub question designed to answer a series of questions about writing good paragraphs. Please do not delete the answers or alternate questions.

Modes of the paragraph? There might be a writing instructor out there that has a list of different "modes" for a paragraph, but that's not a term on which you'll find a common understanding.

The following information, though, is more or less the common understanding of what comprises a model paragraph:

0. A paragraph advances and explores an idea, often synthesizing a new idea through demonstrating a connection between a thesis and an observation or fact, or between two different points of view.

1. First a paragraph needs to state its topic: express in general terms the point that you'll be exploring. It's often best if you can state this in your own words and your own manner of writing and without referring to your sources by name.

2. Then transition to your specific and detailed discussion of this point, identifying sources or specific data or observations, explaining how and why you see them demonstrating your point. This part of the paragraph can be as short as a single sentence or as long as half a page (double spaced and properly formatted, of course). Be clear, and explain in full, even at the cost of seeming obvious.

3. Then you'll need to connect your point to the overall purpose of your piece of writing, i.e. the thesis. Explain briefly how this particular point relates to what you're trying to argue in your writing; you may want to restate or reword your thesis to take into account any new information you've raised in the paragraph.

4. Finally, identify what you need to discuss next. Given what you've just raised, what new point must be discussed. Transition to that new point and start a new paragraph.

4. 5 Or maybe you've reached the end of the discussion? If this is the last paragraph of the main body of the piece of writing, you'll need to transition to your conclusion where you'll discuss the implications of your thesis and what questions remain to be explored.

This basic model also applies to the introductory and concluding paragraphs of a piece of writing, but some other concerns also apply to those paragraphs:

1. The introductory paragraph should begin with a statement of the general topic or issue the piece of writing will examine, followed by a brief specific and detailed discussion identifying main sources or previous discussions of the topic or issue, explaining their connection to the issue and explaining and justifying your own approach. The paragraph will end in a thesis statement that explains what new perspective you have to offer the issue and how that perspective advances the current understanding of the topic or issue.

2. Some instructors ask you to use the detailed discussion part of the conclusion to review the points that you've covered in your writing. That may help some writers come to a final point in their last paragraph, but it is not how most writing is actually done. It may be better to think of that last paragraph as an opportunity to explore at a specific and detailed level some of the implications of your overall thesis. As I've said above, you should also end with some idea of where your thesis might require you to go if you were to address this topic in a future piece of writing.

O'zbekiston - inhsa Alloh kelajagi buyuk davlat!

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